- Why Wheel Alignment Required for my Tires?
- What is Wheel Balancing?
- How do I read Tire Codes and Specification
- Explain Aspect Ratio
- Load Index
- Speed Index
- Tire Care Tips
- Emission Test
- Nitrogen Filling
Wheel alignment- Ý
Incorrect alignment can result in rapid irregular tire wear and can even affect the handling and safety of the vehicle. Wheel alignment can be affected by driving against a kerb, hitting a pothole in the road or by excessive wear to steering or suspension components. Alignment of wheels and tires to the specification required by your vehicle is an important way to guarantee a smooth ride and to get the most out of your tires.
The direction and angle at which tires are set are both important. Wheel alignment or 'tracking' involves checking the direction and angle against vehicle manufacturers' specifications. These are often described as toe in, toe out, positive camber or negative camber.
"Toe" refers to whether the front of the tires are closer or further apart than the rear of the tires. Different types of vehicles need different toe settings to allow for the way that wheels pull either towards each other or apart.
"Camber" is the inward or outward tilt of a tire. The camber is set by the vehicle manufacturer, and can be affected by potholes in the road and may need to be adjusted periodically.
"Caster" - This refers to the angle of the steering axis in relation to an imaginary vertical line through the center of the wheel when viewed from the side. "Positive caster" is the term used when the vertical line is tilted back toward the rear. If it's tilted forward, we call it "negative caster." The proper caster angle stabilizes your car for better steering.
Wheel balancing Ý
Wheels that are not balanced or are out of balance generally produce a vibration that is uncomfortable to drive in and results in premature wearing of suspension and steering components, rotating parts and tires.
Correctly balanced wheels help to eliminate vibration and avoid premature wear caused by an imbalance in the rotating wheel and tire assembly.
The first sign that your wheels may be out of balance is when your steering wheel starts to wobble above a certain speed. The light weight of modern cars means that they don't dampen down the vibrations caused by spinning wheels in the way that older, heavier vehicles could.
A driver may not always sense an imbalance at the steering wheel. It could be present with but dampened by the vehicle weight. This is why balancing is equally important for both front and rear wheels.
Wheels are balanced on a wheel balancing machine. The machine rotates the tire and wheel assembly and automatically calculates the weight and location of the balance counter weight.
Tire Size/Code Reading Ý
More recently, there has been a move (especially in Europe) to adjust tire designations to conform to DIN. This is the German Institute for standardization - Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, often truncated to Deutsche Industrie Normal.-
205 45 R 15 79
Rim diameter Load rating
% of Tire Width
Refer Load Index
Refer Speed Index
Aspect Ratio- Ý
Aspect ratio is the ratio of a tire's width to it's height. A 70 series tire, therefore, is a tire whose height is equal to 70% of its width. Lower Profile Tires hence have lower series numbers.
Load Index- Ý
The load index on a tire is a numerical code associated with the maximum load the tire can carry. These are generally valid for speed under 210km/h (130mph). Once you get above these speeds, the load-carrying capacity of tires decreases.
The table below gives you most of the Load Index (LI) values you're likely to come across. if you know your car weighs 2 tons - 2000kg - then assume an even weight on each wheel. 4 wheels at 2000kg = 500kg per wheel. This is a load rating of 84. Add 10% to be on a safer side.
Weight in kg
Weight in kg
Weight in kg
Weight in kg
Speed Index- Ý
All tires are rated with a speed letter. This indicates the maximum speed that the tire can sustain for a ten minute endurance without coming to pieces and destroying itself, your car, the car next to you and anyone else within a suitable radius at the time
Speed symbol J K L M N P Q R S T U H V Z W Y Speed (km/h) 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 240 >240 270 300 Speed (mph) 62 68 75 81 87 93 99 106 112 118 124 130 149 >150 168 186
Tread wear- Ý
The tread ware index represents how quickly a tire becomes worn. This index is obtained by a test conducted on a test track over a distance of 6000 miles (9600 km), under controlled conditions. This index is between 60 and 620, with 100 as the reference standard. For example, a tire with a tread ware index of 50 will wear 2 times faster than a normal tire whereas a tire with a tread wear index of 420 will wear 4.2 times more slowly
Higher the treadware index, the longer the life of the tire.
The traction index represents a tire's grip on wet roads. This index is indicated by the letters AA (highest index), A, B, C (lowest index). C is the lowest acceptable rating
Higher the traction index, the shorter the braking distance.
The temperature index represents a tire's temperature resistance and its ability to dissipate heat. This index is obtained by a laboratory test using a test wheel. Excessive heat can cause tire degradation. This index is indicated by the letters A (highest index), B, and C (lowest index). By law, C is the lowest acceptable rating.
The temperature index "A" means that a tire has good temperature resistance
TIRE SAFETY TIPS - Ý
Do not use tires with a tread depth of less than 1.6mm. Tires with low levels of tread will slide easily, suffer from extended braking distances and will be more susceptible to rupturing. In wet conditions the vehicle will aquaplane making braking and handling almost impossible.
Make sure your air pressures are correct. Low air pressure generates heat which can result in the rubber and cord separating, which in turn leads to the cord becoming cut and puncturing the tire. Low pressure also results in excessive wear on the edge of the tire, shortening the tire's life. Excessive pressure, meanwhile, results in unpredictable handling in addition to which, if the tire suffers an impact, it's easily ruptured and cut. If you brake hard, the tire may skid, which reduces tire life as the centre of the tread becomes worn. Check tire inflation pressures at least twice a month. Always check pressures when tires are cool and maintain the pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.
Don't drive with damaged tires. If you drive with materials such as stone in the tread groove stuck in the tire, the tire can become punctured or ruptured. You should change the tire immediately on discovering any damage to avoid any further damage to the carcass.
Treat abnormal tire wear immediately. To assure normal wear you should check air pressures, alignment and rotate the tires regularly. In addition you should avoid bad driving habits such as sudden acceleration, braking and cornering.
Check the spare tire. Make sure you regularly check the spare tire's air pressure, existence/non existence of damage and the depth of remaining groove regularly.
Never mount radial tires on the same axle as non-radial tires or radial tires on the front axle when non-radial tires are mounted on the rear axle. These conditions are likely to cause vehicle instability resulting in a sudden loss of control and serious injury.
Check regularly that wheel nuts are securely tightened.
Never overload your tires. The maximum load and inflation pressure of the tires are moulded into the sidewall. Also, remember; the tire is capable of carrying the maximum load only if it is inflated to its maximum air pressure.
Do not use detergents or chemicals containing petroleum products for cleaning or polishing your tires.
Avoid prolonged use on bad surfaces.
Never fit used tires unless you are sure of their past history. Tires age even if they have not been used or have only been used occasionally. Cracks in the tread or in the sidewall rubber, sometimes accompanied by deformation of the carcass, are a sure sign of aging. Have your old tires checked by a tire specialist so that you can be certain they are still suitable for further use.
If you get a puncture on a TubeType tire, stop as soon as possible and change the tire. Besides the obvious safety considerations, continuing to drive on an under-inflated tire can cause structural deterioration. Punctured tires must always be removed from the wheel to check for secondary damage.
If it is necessary and feasible to repair a tire, it must be carried out by a tire specialist as soon as possible to avoid any structural deterioration. All tire repairs must be entrusted to a tire repair specialist...
Emission Test - Ý
As per the RTO Regulation, it is mandatory to have a Pollution Under Control certification done once in 6 months
At wheel Care We do PUC certification only for Petrol Vehicles (2/3/4 Wheelers)
Nitrogen Filling FAQs Ý
Q - Why Nitrogen?
More consistent tire pressure
Reduced wheel corrosion.
Prevents inner-liner rubber deterioration due to oxidation.
Tires run cooler
Increases tread life
Increases fuel mileage
Helps prevent uneven wear
- Eliminates false alarms for Tire Sensor-equipped vehicles
- Q - Will Nitrogen improve the tire pressure monitoring system on my vehicle?
- A - Yes. Nitrogen will help maintain proper inflation in your tires and reduce the number of faults detected by the TPMS.
Q - Do I still need to check tire pressure?
- A - Yes. But, you will find the tire pressure to be more consistent over temperature changes.
Q - What about my spare tire?
- A - You should certainly inflate your spare with nitrogen to help maintain proper inflation when it comes time you need to use it. Because of the slower air pressure loss of nitrogen through the sidewalls, your spare is more likely to be at proper pressure over a long time than if it was filled with regular air.
Q - Is Nitrogen compatible with my internal tire balancing [powder,beads,fluid]?
- A - Absolutely, in fact, you couldn't find a better operating environment for an internal tire balancing product than a tire filled with nitrogen, due to the absence of moisture.
Q - What do I do if I have to add air?
- A - No problem at all. The small amount of air you may add at some point will still be a very small percentage of the total mixture of air/nitrogen in the tire. Fill a slow leaking tire with air, and when you get back to your Nitrogen Dealer, have him purge and refill the tire with Nirogen once the leak has been repaired.
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